Extrusion - Diagnostic signs

Definition Partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket

An injury to the tooth characterized by partial or total separation of the periodontal ligament resulting in loosening and displacement of the tooth. The alveolar socket bone remains intact in an extrusion injury as opposed to a lateral luxation injury. In addition to axial displacement, the tooth will usually have an element of protrusion or retrusion. In severe extrusion injuries the retrusion/protrusion element can be very pronounced. In some cases it can be more pronounced than the extrusive element.
Visual signs Appears elongated.
Percussion test
Tenderness to percussion.
Mobility test Excessively mobile.
Sensibility test Not reliable in primary teeth. Inconsistent results.
Radiographic findings Increased periodontal ligament space apically.
Radiographs recommended An occlusal exposure is recommended in order to evaluate the size of the displacement and rule out the presence of a root fracture. The radiograph can furthermore be used as a reference point in case of late complications.

Dental Trauma Guide 2010 - produced in cooperation with the Resource Centre for Rare Oral Diseases and Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery
at the University Hospital of Copenhagen - Last edited the 07-01-2014.